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Adding a carbon atom transforms 2D semiconducting material

A technique that introduces carbon-hydrogen molecules into a single atomic layer of the semiconducting material tungsten disulfide dramatically changes the electronic properties of the material, according to researchers who say they can create new types of components for energy-efficient photoelectric devices and electronic circuits with this material.

Origami-inspired materials could soften the blow for reusable spacecraft

Researchers have developed a novel solution to help reduce impact forces -- for potential applications in spacecraft, cars and beyond.

Soil communities threatened by destruction, instability of Amazon forests

A meta-analysis of nearly 300 studies of soil biodiversity in Amazonian forests found that the abundance, biomass, richness and diversity of soil fauna and microbes were reduced following deforestation.

Dead roots double shoreline loss in Gulf

A new study finds that the loss of marsh-edge salt grasses and mangroves due to disturbances such as heavy oiling from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill doubles the rate of shoreline erosion in hard-hit marshes.

Technology better than tape measure for identifying lymphedema risk

New research finds that a special scan measuring lymphatic fluid volume is significantly better than a tape measure at predicting which women undergoing treatment for breast cancer are at risk of developing a common complication resulting from damaged lymph nodes.

Meteor magnets in outer space: Finding elusive giant planets

A team has discovered two Jupiter-sized planets about 150 light years away from Earth that could reveal whether life is likely on the smaller planets in other planetary systems.

AI and high-performance computing extend evolution to superconductors

Researchers used the power of artificial intelligence and high-performance supercomputers to introduce and assess the impact of different configurations of defects on the performance of a superconductor.

More than a protein factory: A role for ribosomes in regulating human gene expression

Researchers have discovered a new function of ribosomes in human cells that may show the protein-making particle's role in destroying healthy mRNAs, the messages that decode DNA into protein.

Mortality risks among pro athletes

A first-of-its-kind comparison between elite pro athletes suggests higher overall mortality among NFL players compared with MLB players. NFL players also appear to have higher risk of dying from cardiovascular and neurodegenerative causes compared with MLB peers. The differences warrant further study of sport-specific mechanisms of disease development. Clinicians treating current and former NFL players should be vigilant about the presence of cardiovascular and neurologic symptoms and promptly treat risk factors such as sleep apnea, obesity, hypertension.

Drug-resistant infections: If you can't beat 'em, starve 'em, scientists find

To treat Candida albicans, a common yeast that can cause illness in those with weakened immune systems, researchers limited the fungus' access to iron, an element crucial to the organism's survival.

Gut is organized by function, and opportunities for better drug design

New findings provide insights about how the intestine maximizes nutrient uptake, while at the same time protecting the body from potentially dangerous microbes.

'Neural Lander' uses AI to land drones smoothly

Control engineers and AI experts team up to make drones that fly more smoothly close to the ground.

Cancer cells are quick-change artists adapting to their environment

New research shows that cancer cells of glioblastomas -- conspicuously aggressive solid brain tumors -- manifest developmental plasticity and their phenotypic characteristics are less constrained than believed.

Do you hear what I hear?

A new study found that infants at high risk for autism were less attuned to differences in speech patterns than low-risk infants. The findings suggest that interventions to improve language skills should begin during infancy for those at high risk for autism.

If you could learn every disease your child could possibly develop in life, would you?

Adding genomic sequencing results to traditional newborn screening means a baby could potentially test positive for numerous conditions that might not develop within their lifetime. A new study proposed a method for how to responsibly determine which types of conditions to include in testing and potentially return to parents.

Better together: human and robot co-workers

More and more processes are being automated. Self-driving delivery vehicles are finding their way into many areas. However, an interdisciplinary research team has observed that cooperation between humans and machines can work much better than just human or just robot teams alone.

Finding the cause of capacity loss in a metal-oxide battery material

Scientists studying a lithium-ion battery with an iron-oxide electrode as it charged and discharged over 100 cycles found that the loss is due to a buildup of lithium oxide and decomposition of the medium through which lithium ions flow.

How to prevent mosquitofish from spreading in water ecosystems

Preventing the introduction of the mosquitofish and removing its population are the most effective actions to control the dispersal of this exotic fish in ponds and lakes, according to a new study.

How corn's ancient ancestor rejects crossbreeding

New research elucidates the mechanism that keeps maize distinct from its ancient ancestor grass, teosinte.

Simple test can tell if you're stressed out

Researchers have developed a new test that can easily and simply measure common stress hormones using sweat, blood, urine or saliva. Eventually, they hope to turn their ideas into a simple device that patients can use at home to monitor their health.

Shedding light on the burden of dengue in Bangladesh

Dengue, also known as dengue fever, is a viral disease transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. The incidence of dengue is currently increasing dramatically, and it is now one of the diseases said to be re-emerging. Researchers have conducted a study to determine the burden of dengue in Bangladesh and identify key risk factors for infection.

Climate change affects the genetic diversity of a species

What effects does climate change have on the genetic diversity of living organisms? In a new study, researchers studied the genome of the alpine marmot. Results were unexpected: the species was found to be the least genetically diverse of any wild mammal studied to date. The alpine marmot has lost its genetic diversity during ice-age related climate events and been unable to recover its diversity since.

Scientists discover signalling circuit boards inside body's cells

Cells in the body are wired like computer chips to direct signals that instruct how they function, research suggests. Unlike a fixed circuit board, however, cells can rapidly rewire their communication networks to change their behavior. The discovery of this cell-wide web turns our understanding of how instructions spread around a cell on its head.

Short-term use of opioids increases subjective pleasure: Risk of addiction

As indicated by a recently published study, short-term opioid use shifts a range of emotional responses to the positive direction. This may be one of the reasons behind the onset of opioid use disorder.

Highly flexible high-energy textile lithium battery to cope with surging demand for wearable electronics

Researchers have developed a highly flexible, high-energy textile lithium battery that offers more stable, durable and safe energy supply for wearable electronics with a myriad of applications, such as in healthcare monitoring, intelligent textiles, smartphones, global positioning system (GPS) tracking and Internet of Things (IoT).

New algorithm uses disease history to predict intensive care patients' chances of survival

Researchers have used data on more than 230,000 intensive care patients to develop a new algorithm. Among other things, it uses disease history from the past 23 years to predict patients' chances of survival in intensive care units.

Mathematically designed graphene has improved electrocatalytic activity

An international research group has improved graphene's ability to catalyze the 'hydrogen evolution reaction,' which releases hydrogen as a result of passing an electronic current through water. They designed a mathematically predicted graphene electrocatalyst, and confirmed its performance using high resolution electrochemical microscopy and computational modelling.

Stark social inequalities in children's body mass index (BMI)

Researchers have found that socioeconomic inequalities in children's body mass index (BMI) emerge during the preschool years and widen across childhood and into early adolescence. By analyzing data on height and weight (BMI) they found that lower maternal education was associated with faster gains in child body weight but lower height growth leading to a higher risk of overweight and obesity.

Exotic matter uncovered in the sun's atmosphere

Scientists have announced a major new finding about how matter behaves in the extreme conditions of the sun's atmosphere. Their work has shed new light on the exotic but poorly understood 'fourth state of matter,' known as plasma, which could hold the key to developing safe, clean and efficient nuclear energy generators on Earth.

High-intensity exercise may restore heart function in people with type 2 diabetes

Researchers have discovered that high-intensity exercise can reduce or reverse the loss in heart function caused by type 2 diabetes.

ALS research reveals new treatment approach

New research on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AML) has revealed that a protein called membralin plays a key role in the disease process. The study suggests that membralin-boosting gene therapy is a potential therapeutic direction to treat this often deadly disease.

When macrophages are deprived of oxygen

Infected tissue has a low concentration of oxygen. The body's standard immune mechanisms, which rely on oxygen, can then only function to a limited extent. How does the immune system nevertheless manage to control bacteria under such conditions? Researchers have discovered that fewer metabolites are produced in the citric acid cycle under hypoxic conditions, leading to a reduced rate of reproduction among bacteria in macrophages.

Nature inspires a novel new form of computing, using light

Researchers have developed a simple and highly novel form of computing by shining patterned bands of light and shadow through different facets of a polymer cube and reading the combined results that emerge.

Cognitive behavioral therapy for kids with long-term conditions

The mental health of children and young people with some long term physical conditions could benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), according to a recent study. The systematic review used robust methods to bring together and make sense of the best science in this area.

Mites and ticks are close relatives, new research shows

Scientists have reconstructed the evolutionary history of the chelicerates, the mega-diverse group of 110,000 arthropods that includes spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks.

Quantum computing boost from vapor stabilizing technique

A technique to stabilize alkali metal vapor density using gold nanoparticles, so electrons can be accessed for applications including quantum computing, atom cooling and precision measurements, has now been patented.

Crabs' camouflage tricks revealed

Crabs from a single species rely on different camouflage techniques depending on what habitat they live in, new research shows.

Virtual reality can spot navigation problems in early Alzheimer's disease

Virtual reality (VR) can identify early Alzheimer's disease more accurately than 'gold standard' cognitive tests currently in use, new research suggests.

Did Leonardo da Vinci have ADHD?

Leonardo da Vinci produced some of the world's most iconic art, but historical accounts show that he struggled to complete his works. New research now suggests the best explanation for Leonardo's inability to finish projects is that the great artist may have had attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Older male crickets attract more females -- but mate less

Older male crickets are better at getting females to live with them -- but they mate less than younger rivals once they find a partner.

Spanish flu may have lingered two years before 1918 outbreak and vaccine could have treated it

The most severe pandemic in recent history, killing some 50 million people worldwide, the Spanish influenza, may have emerged up to two years earlier than previously believed. And, according to a new and influential study, its early manifestation was ignored at the time as a 'minor infection.'

A step closer to identifying cause of a blinding disease

A recent study offers an important step in unlocking the mystery of LHON's cause. The researchers had previously showed that the cells that connect the eye to the brain were sensitive to a certain free radical, known as 'superoxide,' and hypothesized that the presence of too much superoxide was likely the cause of LHON.

Experimental fertility preservation provides hope for young men

Testicular tissue samples obtained from 189 males who were facing procedures that could imperil fertility were cryopreserved at one university, proving the feasibility of centralized processing and freezing of testicular tissue obtained from academic medical centers scattered around the world.

Initially threatened by change, people adapt to societal diversity over time

With time, people can adapt to societal diversity and actually benefit from it, according to a new study. Those in power especially set the tone for integrating people into a new society.

Researchers create soft, flexible materials with enhanced properties

Polymer chemists and engineers have developed a new methodology that can be used to create a class of stretchable polymer composites with enhanced electrical and thermal properties. These materials are promising candidates for use in soft robotics, self-healing electronics and medical devices.

What we think we know -- but might not -- pushes us to learn more

Our doubts about what we think we know pique our curiosity and motivate us to learn more, according to new research.

Aftershocks of 1959 earthquake rocked Yellowstone in 2017-18

A swarm of more than 3,000 small earthquakes in the Maple Creek area (in Yellowstone National Park but outside of the Yellowstone volcano caldera) between June 2017 and March 2018 are, at least in part, aftershocks of the 1959 quake.

Marching for climate change may sway people's beliefs and actions

Americans have a long tradition of taking to the streets to protest or to advocate for things they believe in. New research suggests that when it comes to climate change, these marches may indeed have a positive effect on the public.

On Mars, sands shift to a different drum

In the most detailed analysis of how sands move around on Mars, a team of planetary scientists has found that processes not involved in controlling sand movement on Earth play major roles on Mars.

Interplay between mitochondria and nucleus may have implications for new treatment

Mitochondria, the 'batteries' that produce our energy, interact with the cell's nucleus in subtle ways previously unseen in humans, according to new research.

Scientists (dis)solve a century-long mystery to treat asthma and airway inflammation

Research groups have solved a century-long puzzle about the presence of protein crystals in asthma. Normally, proteins do not crystallize in the body, but there are some instances where this process does occur.

Live fast, die young: Study shows tiny fishes fuel coral reefs

Scientists have long sought to understand how coral reefs support such an abundance of fish life despite their location in nutrient-poor waters. According to a new study, an unlikely group fuels these communities: tiny, mostly bottom-dwelling creatures called 'cryptobenthic' reef fishes.

Building a better salt trap: Scientists synthesize a molecular 'cage' to trap chloride

Researchers have synthesized a powerful new molecule to trap chloride salts. The technology has the potential to reduce its seepage into freshwater systems, which is a threat to drinkable water around the globe.

Women are less likely than men to be diagnosed with minor stroke

A new study find women experiencing a minor stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) are less likely to be diagnosed with a stroke compared to men -- even though they describe similar symptoms in emergency departments.

Dissolving protein traffic jam at the entrance of mitochondria

Researchers have discovered a novel mechanism that ensures obstacle-free protein traffic into the powerhouse of the cell.

New leaf shapes for thale cress

Scientists have determined how key developmental genes influence growth of cells to produce such differences in leaf form. The researchers were able to make thale cress, which typically produces simple leaves, grow leaves similar in complexity to those of hairy bittercress, a related plant with complex leaves.

How to enhance or suppress memories

New research shows memories are pliable if you know which regions of the brain's hippocampus to stimulate -- a finding that could someday enable personalized treatment for people with PTSD, depression and anxiety.

The extraordinary powers of bacteria visualized in real time

The global spread of antibiotic resistance is a major public health issue and a priority for international microbiology research. In a new paper, researchers report on filming the process of antibiotic resistance acquisition in real time, discovering a key but unexpected player in its maintenance and spread within bacterial populations.

Egyptian fruit bats trade food for sex

A new study finds that female Egyptian fruit bats form bonds with particular male bats to exchange mating for nourishment.

The healing power of fish skin for a dog named Stella

Veterinarians used a creative approach to treat the burns of Stella, a 1-year-old Rottweiler puppy, who escaped a house fire. Smoke inhalation prohibited Stella from being sedated for skin grafts, so the team used cod fish skins to help heal Stella's burns. This successful treatment could help other animals.



 
 

 

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