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Studying organ crosstalk leads to a deeper understanding of sepsis

Sepsis, a complex systemic response to infection leading to organ failure, is generally studied at the level of individual organs; this research has hinted at altered metabolic changes. A new study takes a two-pronged approach and investigates for the first time the metabolic changes across affected organs in a large animal model of sepsis and identifies both potential common and organ-specific metabolic alterations contributing to the disease process.

Examining the link between caste and under-five mortality in India

In India, children that belong to disadvantaged castes face a much higher likelihood of not living past their fifth birthday than their counterparts in non-deprived castes. Researchers examined the association between castes and under-five mortality in an effort to help reduce the burden of under-five deaths in the country.

The meat allergy: Researcher IDs biological changes triggered by tick bites

Researchers have identified key immunological changes in people who abruptly develop an allergic reaction to mammalian meat, such as beef. The work is an important step in developing a treatment for the strange allergy triggered by tick bites.

Enabling longer space missions

The Hall thruster is a propulsion system that is often used by spacecraft engaged in longer missions. A recent study has shown how the operating lives of these systems can be further extended.

Cost-effective fuel cell technology

Researchers have identified ammonia as a source for engineering fuel cells that can provide a cheap and powerful source for fueling cars, trucks and buses with a reduced carbon footprint.

The journey of the pollen

When insects carry the pollen from one flower to another to pollinate them, the pollen must attach to and detach from different surfaces. Scientists have discovered that the mechanisms are far more complex than previously assumed. They differ depending on the duration of the contact and the microstructure of the plant surfaces. The results could be interesting for drug delivery and for developing alternative strategies in agriculture and food production.

Plants could remove six years of carbon dioxide emissions -- if we protect them

By analysing 138 experiments, researchers have mapped the potential of today's plants and trees to store extra carbon by the end of the century.

Biomolecular analyses of Roopkund skeletons show Mediterranean migrants in Indian Himalaya

A large-scale study conducted by an international team of scientists has revealed that the mysterious skeletons of Roopkund Lake -- once thought to have died during a single catastrophic event - belong to genetically highly distinct groups that died in multiple periods in at least two episodes separated by one thousand years.

Stone Age boat building site has been discovered underwater

Researchers have discovered a new 8,000 year old structure 11 meters below sea level on the Isle of Wight. It is the most intact, wooden Middle Stone Age structure ever found in the UK.

Shedding light on the reaction mechanism of PUVA light therapy for skin diseases

Physical chemists have clarified which chemical reactions take place during PUVA therapy. The therapy involves light-induced damage to the DNA of diseased cells.

Skeletal shapes key to rapid recognition of objects

In the blink of an eye, the human visual system can process an object, determining whether it's a cup or a sock within milliseconds, and with seemingly little effort. It's well-established that an object's shape is a critical visual cue to help the eyes and brain perform this trick. A new study, however, finds that while the outer shape of an object is important for rapid recognition, the object's inner 'skeleton' may play an even more important role.

Low levels of vitamin D in elementary school could spell trouble in adolescence

Vitamin D deficiency in middle childhood could result in aggressive behavior as well as anxious and depressive moods during adolescence, according to a new study of school children in Bogotá, Colombia.

Connected forest networks on oil palm plantations key to protecting endangered species

Set-aside patches of high-quality forest on palm oil plantations may help protect species like orangutans, as well as various species of insects, birds and bats -- many of which are threatened with extinction in areas of Indonesia and Malaysia, where 85% of the world's palm oil is produced.

Stardust in the Antarctic snow

The rare isotope iron-60 is created in massive stellar explosions. Only a very small amount of this isotope reaches the earth from distant stars. Now, a research team has discovered iron-60 in Antarctic snow for the first time. The scientists suggest that the iron isotope comes from the interstellar neighborhood.

Embryology: A sequence of reflexive contractions triggers the formation of the limbs

It normally takes about 21 days for chicken embryos to develop into chicks. By observing chicken hindlimb formation, a research team has just discovered that the mechanism at the origin of embryonic development consists of a sequence of reflexive contractions. The researchers were able to artificially recreate the same process and accelerate it by as much as a factor of 20.

Multi-tasking protein at the root of neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition resulting from nerve injury and is characterized by increased pain sensitivity. Although known to be associated with overly excitable neurons in the spinal cord, the mechanisms leading to chronic pain are poorly understood. Researchers have now shown that expression of a protein called FLRT3 in the spinal dorsal root ganglion causes pain sensitization, which can be alleviated by treatment with FLRT3-blocking antibodies.

Lab-on-a-chip drives search for new drugs to prevent blood clots

The effectiveness of current anti-clotting medication can be limited due to the risk of complications. This is driving a need for alternatives that can both prevent the formation of blood clots and reduce the risk of excessive and life-threatening bleeding. A new biocompatible lab-on-a-chip could help accelerate the discovery and development of new anti-clotting therapies, with automated processes that can achieve in a few minutes what could take days in a full-sized lab.

Black hole holograms

Researchers show how a holographic tabletop experiment can be used to simulate the physics of a black hole. This work may lead the way to a more complete theory of quantum gravity that harmonizes quantum mechanics and relativity.

Nicotine-free e-cigarettes can damage blood vessels

A Penn study reveals single instance of vaping immediately leads to reduced vascular function.

Longline fishing hampering shark migration

Longline fisheries around the world are significantly affecting migrating shark populations, according to an international study. The study found that approximately a quarter of the studied sharks' migratory paths fell under the footprint of longline fisheries, directly killing sharks and affecting their food supply.

More children suffer head injuries playing recreational sport than team sport

An Australian/ New Zealand study examining childhood head injuries has found that children who do recreational sports like horse riding, skate boarding and bike riding are more likely to suffer serious head injuries than children who play contact sport like AFL or rugby.

Studying animal cognition in the wild

Studying cognition in the wild is a challenge. Field researchers and their study animals face many factors that can easily interfere with their variables of interest and that many say are 'impossible' to control for. A novel observational approach for field research can now guide young scholars, who want to study cognition in the field before this opportunity disappears.

Best practices for wildfire adaptation and resilience

New research outlines best practices for social and ecological resilience in a Western landscape where wildfires are becoming inevitable.

New protein spin labelling technique

Researchers develop a new site-directed spin labeling approach based on genetically encoded noncanonical amino acids amenable to Diels-Alder chemistry as well as a new spin label, PaNDA.

A battery-free sensor for underwater exploration

Researchers have developed a battery-free underwater communication system that uses near-zero power to transmit sensor data. The system could be used to monitor sea temperatures to study climate change and track marine life over long periods -- and even sample waters on distant planets.

Mini kidneys grown from stem cells give new insights into kidney disease and therapies

Medical researchers have grown 'miniature kidneys' in the laboratory that could be used to better understand how kidney diseases develop in individual patients. These kidney organoids were grown outside the body from skin cells derived from a single patient who has polycystic kidney disease. This method has paved the way for tailoring treatment plans specific to each patient, which could be extended to a range of kidney diseases.

World's thinnest, lightest signal amplifier enables bioinstrumentation with reduced noise

A research group succeeded in developing the world's thinnest and lightest differential amplifier for bioinstrumentation.

Pluripotency: 'Butterfly effect' discovered

Pluripotent cells can give rise to all cells of the body, a power that researchers are eager to control because it opens the door to regenerative medicine and organ culture for transplants. But pluripotency is still a black box for science, controlled by unknown genetic and epigenetic signals. Researchers have now uncovered one of those epigenetic signals, after a detective quest that started almost a decade ago.

Simple computational models can help predict post-traumatic osteoarthritis

Researchers have developed a method to predict post-traumatic osteoarthritis in patients with ligament ruptures using a simplified computational model. The researchers also verified the model predictions against measured structural and compositional changes in the knee joint between follow-up times.

Dog down: Effort helps emergency medical staff treat law enforcement K-9s

Law enforcement K-9s face the same dangers their human handlers confront. Recognizing a gap in care for law enforcement K-9s injured on the job, a team of veterinarians, emergency medical services experts and canine handlers has developed protocols for emergency medical service personnel who may be called upon to help treat and transport the injured dogs.

Football scores a health hat-trick for 55- to 70-year-old women with prediabetes

A new study shows that football is a surprisingly efficient type of physical training for female prediabetes patients, with impressive effects on cardiovascular health after 16 weeks of training for 55- to 70-year old women with no prior football experience.

Selfie versus posie

If you lose sleep over the number of likes on your Instagram account, new research suggests you might want to think twice before posting that selfie.

City parks lift mood as much as Christmas

New research shows that visitors to urban parks use happier words and express less negativity on Twitter than before their visit -- and that their elevated mood lasts for up to four hours. The effect is so strong that it's equivalent to the mood spike on Christmas, the happiest day each year on Twitter. With increasing urbanization and mood disorders, this research may have powerful implications for public health and urban planning.

Brain takes a beating as arteries age

Researchers have presented a model that explains why memory deteriorates as the body ages. With age, the brain receives an increased load from the heart's beating as the body's large arteries stiffen over the years, causing damage to the smallest blood vessels in the brain.

A new path to cancer therapy: developing simultaneous multiplexed gene editing technology

Scientists have developed a new gene editing system that could be used for anticancer immunotherapy through the simultaneous suppression of proteins that interfere with the immune system expressed on the surface of lymphoma cells and activation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte.

Possible genetic link between children's language and mental health

A new study has examined genetic variants in six genes that are thought to contribute to language development in children. They found that nearly half of the genetic variants which contribute to children's language difficulties were also associated with poor mental health.

Amazon rainforest absorbing less carbon than expected

An international team of climate scientists has found that accounting for phosphorus-deficient soils reduced projected carbon dioxide uptake by an average of 50% in the Amazon, compared to current estimates based on previous climate models that did not take into account phosphorus deficiency.

Spending on illicit drugs in US nears $150 billion annually

Spending on cannabis, cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine fluctuated between $120 billion and $145 billion each year from 2006 to 2016, rivaling what Americans spend each year on alcohol, according to a new study.

Risk of psychotic disorders has disease-specific brain effects

Brain abnormalities in people at familial risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder emerge in unique patterns, despite the symptom and genetic overlap of the disorders, according to a new study. Similarities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have led to the diagnoses being increasingly combined in studies of psychosis, but the findings highlight that risk for the disorders has distinct effects on the brain.

Shasta dam releases can be managed to benefit both salmon and sturgeon

Cold water released from Lake Shasta into the Sacramento River to benefit endangered salmon can be detrimental to young green sturgeon, a threatened species adapted to warmer water. But scientists have found a way to minimize this apparent conflict through a water management strategy that benefits both species, while also meeting the needs of agricultural water users downstream.

All-in-one: New microbe degrades oil to gas

The tiny organisms cling to oil droplets and perform a great feat: As a single organism, they may produce methane from oil by a process called alkane disproportionation. Previously this was only known from symbioses between bacteria and archaea. Scientists have now found cells of this microbe called Methanoliparia in oil reservoirs worldwide.

Hurricanes drive the evolution of more aggressive spiders

Researchers who rush in after storms to study the behavior of spiders have found that extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones may have an evolutionary impact on populations living in storm-prone regions, where aggressive spiders have the best odds of survival.

Lighting up proteins with Immuno-SABER

Researchers have developed a new DNA-nanotechnology-based approach called Immuno-SABER, that combines the protein targeting specificity of commonly available antibodies with a DNA-based signal-amplification strategy that enables the highly multiplexed visualization of many proteins in the same sample with pre-programmable and tunable fluorescence signals at each target site.

A map of the brain can tell what you're reading about

Neuroscientists have created interactive maps that can predict where different categories of words activate the brain. Their latest map is focused on what happens in the brain when you read stories.

Towards an 'orrery' for quantum gauge theory

Physicists have developed a new approach to couple quantized gauge fields to ultracold matter. The method might be the basis for a versatile platform to tackle problems ranging from condensed-matter to high-energy physics.

Drawing inspiration from natural marvels to make new materials

The shape-shifting bristle worm has the unique ability to extend its jaw outside of its mouth and ensnare surprised prey. The metal coordination chemistry that makes this natural wonder possible can also be the key to creating new materials for use in sensors, healthcare applications, and much more.

Biochemists discover new insights into what may go awry in brains of Alzheimer's patients

Three decades of research on Alzheimer's disease have not produced major treatment advances for patients. Researchers now report new insights that may lead to progress in fighting the devastating disease. They discovered beta amyloid has a specific amino acid that can form a kink, like a kink in a garden hose, creating a harmful molecular zipper and leading to the death of neurons.

Research using mechanics and physics could predict diseases that 'stress out' cells

Using ultrasonic tweezers, live imaging and a micro-mechanical substrate, researchers found energy patterns in cellular allostasis that could predict the presence of disease.

Comparing your house to your neighbors' can lead to dissatisfaction

Satisfaction with your home can depend on its size compared to your neighbors' homes, according to new research. Researchers found that people are more likely to be dissatisfied with their house if it is smaller than their neighbors'.

Roadmap for detecting changes in ocean due to climate change

When will we see significant changes in the ocean due to climate change? A new study finds that some changes are noticeable already, while others will take up to a century.

Online brain games can extend in-game 'cognitive youth' into old age

A new study has found that online brain game exercises can enable people in their 70s and even 80s to multitask cognitively as well as individuals 50 years their junior. This is an increasingly valuable skill, given today's daily information onslaught, which can divide attention and be particularly taxing for older adults.

Potential treatments for citrus greening

Over the course of 40 years, a biologist has become an expert in symbiotic bacteria that help alfalfa grow. She has published over 150 papers on this one topic but when she realized her lab's decades of highly focused research could contribute to a solution for citrus greening -- a disease that devastates citrus crops -- she was inspired to go in a new direction.

Global change is triggering an identity switch in grasslands

Since the first Homo sapiens emerged in Africa roughly 300,000 years ago, grasslands have sustained humanity and thousands of other species. But today, those grasslands are shifting beneath our feet. Global change -- which includes climate change, pollution and other widespread environmental alterations -- is transforming the plant species growing in them, and not always in the ways scientists expected, a new study has revealed.

How ergonomic is your warehouse job? Soon, an app might be able to tell you

Researchers at the UW have used machine learning to develop a new system that can monitor factory and warehouse workers and tell them how ergonomic their jobs are in real time.

Blood vessels turning into bone-like particles

A researcher has found that blood vessels within bone marrow may progressively convert into bone with advancing age.

Are attitudes contagious? Nonverbal messages

A new study examined whether people can acquire attitudes toward other individuals from the nonverbal signals that are directed toward them.

Single protein plays important dual transport roles in the brain

Scientists report that halting production of synaptotagmin 17 (syt-17) blocks growth of axons. Equally significant, when cells made more syt-17, axon growth accelerated. A wide range of neurological conditions could benefit from the growth of axons, including spinal cord injuries and some neurodegenerative diseases.

Possible new treatment strategy for lung cancer

It is estimated there will be roughly 228,000 new lung cancer cases this year, and nearly 30% of those patients will have mutations in the KRAS pathway. This type of mutation makes the cancer more aggressive and difficult to treat. Researchers are hoping to change that. They have now discovered a new treatment approach that may help this group of patients.

Need a mental break? Avoid your cellphone

Using a cellphone to take a break during mentally challenging tasks does not allow the brain to recharge effectively and may result in poorer performance, researchers found.

Burning invasive western juniper maintains sagebrush dominance longer

Burning invasive western juniper increases the time -- post-fire -- that native mountain sagebrush will remain the dominant woody vegetation in the plant community by at least 44 percent compared to cutting juniper back, according to a new study.



 
 

 

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