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Museums put ancient DNA to work for wildlife

Scientists who are trying to save species at the brink of extinction are finding help in an unexpected place. Researchers increasingly are embracing the power of ancient DNA from old museum specimens to answer questions about climate change, habitat loss and other stresses on surviving populations.

Industrial melanism linked to same gene in 3 moth species

The rise of dark forms of many species of moth in heavily polluted areas of 19th and 20th century Britain, known as industrial melanism, was a highly visible response to environmental change. But did the different species rely on the same gene to adapt? New research by the University of Liverpool reveals that three species of moth, including the famous peppered moth, indeed did.

Assigning workers to new networks boosts sustainability

Innovation comes from people in different units who have new knowledge, and a new study about conservation organizations suggests encouraging employees to think and act outside network boxes from time to time.

How aerosols affect our climate

Greenhouse gases may get more attention, but aerosols -- from car exhaust to volcanic eruptions -- also have a major impact on the Earth's climate. Using a massive NASA dataset, researchers have created a framework that helps explain just how sensitive local temperatures are to aerosols.

Scientists unwind mystery behind DNA replication

The molecules of life are twisted. But how those familiar strands in DNA's double helix manage to replicate without being tangled up has been hard to decipher. A new perspective from physicists is helping unravel the mystery.

New insights into the structure and function of Cdc34, a target for cancer therapeutics

Researchers report they have obtained 3D structural snapshots of Cdc34 in action. Cdc34 is an enzyme important for cell cycle regulation and a target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. These structures, along with studies in human cells, have revealed key features of this enzyme important for its regulation of cell growth and activity. These unique features could present opportunities for rational design of novel cancer therapeutics.

Darn you, R2! When can we blame robots?

A recent study finds that people are likely to blame robots for workplace accidents, but only if they believe the robots are autonomous.

Near misses on slot machines may not encourage continued gambling

For nearly 70 years, researchers believed that near-miss events like these would encourage you to continue gambling. But new research suggests that the near-miss effect may not exist at all.

Evidence of behavioral, biological similarities between compulsive overeating and addiction

Does yo-yo dieting drive compulsive eating? There may be a connection. According to researchers the chronic cyclic pattern of overeating followed by undereating, reduces the brain's ability to feel reward and may drive compulsive eating. This finding suggests that future research into treatment of compulsive eating behavior should focus on rebalancing the mesolimbic dopamine system -- the part of the brain responsible for feeling reward or pleasure.

Fingerprints of Earth's original building blocks discovered in diamond-bearing rocks

Scientists have detected primordial chemical signatures preserved within modern kimberlites, according to new research. The results provide critical insight for understanding the formation of Earth.

Paleontologists discover complete Saurornitholestes langstoni specimen

The discovery of a nearly complete dromaeosaurid Saurornitholestes langstoni specimen is providing critical information for the evolution of theropod dinosaurs, according to new research.

Scientists discover new species of wasp-mimicking praying mantis

Biologists have described a new species of praying mantis that displays the first documented example of conspicuous mimicking of a wasp among praying mantises.

Embryo's early development revealed in a dish

Bioscientists develop a method to observe patterns of early embryonic development, during which ectodermal cells diverge toward their fates as skin, organs and the nervous system.

How plant roots grow hair

The roots of plants can do a lot of things: They grow in length to reach water, they can bend to circumvent stones, and they form fine root hairs enabling them to absorb more nutrients from the soil. A team of researchers has now identified an important regulator of this process.

Bad break-ups may not trigger weight gain from emotional eating

That pint of ice cream after a nasty breakup may not do as much damage as you think. Despite the emotional turmoil, people on average do not report gaining weight after a relationship dissolution, according to new research.

Adults with undiagnosed Celiac disease have lower bone density

New research has found lower bone density in adults who are likely to have undiagnosed celiac disease, an autoimmune disease triggered by consuming gluten, despite this group consuming more calcium and phosphorous than the control group.

Giving robots a faster grasp

Engineers have found a way to significantly speed up the planning process required for a robot to adjust its grasp on an object by pushing that object against a stationary surface. Whereas traditional algorithms would require tens of minutes for planning out a sequence of motions, the new team's approach shaves this planning process down to less than a second.

Arthropods formed orderly lines 480 million years ago

Researchers studied fossilized Moroccan Ampyx trilobites, which lived 480 million years ago and showed that the trilobites had probably been buried in their positions -- all oriented in the same direction. Scientists deduced that these Ampyx processions may illustrate a kind of collective behavior adopted in response to cyclic environmental disturbances.

Bio-circuitry mimics synapses and neurons in a step toward sensory computing

Researchers have demonstrated bio-inspired devices that accelerate routes to neuromorphic, or brain-like, computing. Their discovery could support the emergence of computing networks modeled on biology for a sensory approach to machine learning.

Double layer of graphene helps to control spin currents

In order to make transistors that operate using the spin of electrons, rather than their charge, it is necessary to find a way of switching spin currents on and off. Furthermore, the lifetime of the spins should at least be equal to the time taken for these electrons to travel through a circuit. Scientists have now taken an important step forward by creating a device that meets both of these requirements.

Stormy cluster weather could unleash black hole power and explain lack of cosmic cooling

'Weather' in clusters of galaxies may explain a longstanding puzzle. Scientists have now used sophisticated simulations to show how powerful jets from supermassive black holes are disrupted by the motion of hot gas and galaxies, preventing gas from cooling, which could otherwise form stars.

Nature-based solutions can help protect us from climate-related natural hazards

Solutions found in nature should be our first line of defense against the increasing number of climate change-related natural disasters, say experts.

What happens under the Yellowstone Volcano?

A recent study helps to better explain the processes in the Earth's interior beneath the Yellowstone supervolcano.

Physicists develop fast and sensitive mechanical tool to measure light

Physicists have developed a fast and sensitive mechanical tool to measure light. The graphene nanomechanical bolometer is the fastest and most sensitive in its class. It is poised to detect nearly every color of light at high speeds and obtain measurements at and far above room-temperature.

Image analysis to automatically quantify gender bias in movies

Many commercial films worldwide continue to express womanhood in a stereotypical manner, a recent study using image analysis showed. A research team developed a novel image analysis method for automatically quantifying the degree of gender bias in in films.

First demonstration of one petabit per second network node

Computer scientists have demonstrated the first large-scale optical switching testbed capable of handling 1 Petabit per second optical signals. This demonstration made use of state-of-the-art large-scale and low-loss optical switches based on MEMS technology, three types of next-generation spatial-division multiplexing fibers, and included data rates from 10 Terabit per second to 1 Petabit per second. This is a major step forward towards practical petabit-class backbone networks.

A new approach to tackle superbugs

Scientists have uncovered a novel antibiotic-free approach that could help prevent and treat one of the most widespread bacterial pathogens, using nanocapsules made of natural ingredients.

Mothers' behavior influences bonding hormone oxytocin in babies

A new epigenetic study now suggests that mothers' behavior can also have a substantial impact on their children's developing oxytocin systems.

Cultivating joy through mindfulness: An antidote to opioid misuse, the disease of despair

New research shows that a specific mind-body therapy, Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), increases the brain's response to natural, healthy rewards while also decreasing the brain's response to opioid-related cues.

First widespread chytrid fungus infections in frogs of Peruvian Amazon rain forests

Biologists have documented, for the first time, the widespread presence of the notorious chytrid fungus in 80 species of frogs from lowland rain forest sites in the Peruvian Amazon.

DEET gives humans an 'invisibilty cloak' to fend off mosquito bites

Since its invention during the Second World War for soldiers stationed in countries where malaria transmission rates were high, researchers have worked to pinpoint precisely how DEET actually affects mosquitoes.

Faulty signalling pathway linked to congenital heart condition

Faulty signalling pathway causes the heart to develop unnaturally while in the embryo stage, according to Duke-NUS Medical School researchers.

Financial hardship in cancer: The role of health insurance literacy

A new study links health insurance literacy with medical financial hardship as well as non-medical financial sacrifices among adult cancer survivors in the United States.

Daily exposure to blue light may accelerate aging, even if it doesn't reach your eyes

Prolonged exposure to blue light, such as that which emanates from your phone, computer and household fixtures, could be affecting your longevity, even if it's not shining in your eyes. New research suggests that the blue wavelengths produced by light-emitting diodes damage cells in the brain as well as retinas, according to a new study in a model organism.

Sexual selection alone could spark formation of new species

Because of imprinted preferences, strawberry poison frog females mate more with similar colored males, and less with differently colored males. Over time, the behavior could lead to two color types becoming separate species.

3D printed chocolate without temperature control

A new approach to the 3D printing of chocolate using cold extrusion instead of conventional hot-melt extrusion method eliminates the need for stringent temperature controls, offering wider potential for 3D printing temperature-sensitive food.

Treatment of metabolic dysfunction could be a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease

A team of researchers has found evidence that metabolic dysfunction is a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease.

Always on beat: Ultrashort flashes of light under optical control

Ultrashort laser pulses have enabled scientists and physicians to carry out high-precision material analyses and medical procedures. Physicists have now discovered a new method for adjusting the extremely short time intervals between laser flashes with exceptional speed and precision. The intervals can be increased or decreased as needed, all at the push of a button. Potential applications range from laser spectroscopy to microscopy and materials processing.

Deep water sites off the US northeast coast are suitable for offshore blue mussel farms

Offshore mussel farm sites need to have the right temperature, food availability, and the right currents. According to a study, several suitable locations can be found off the Northeastern US.

Photosynthesis Olympics: Can the best wheat varieties be even better?

Scientists have put elite wheat varieties through a sort of 'Photosynthesis Olympics' to find which varieties have the best performing photosynthesis. This could ultimately help grain growers to get more yield for less inputs in the farm.

Efficient synthesis of ginkgo compound could lead to new drugs, 'green' insecticides

Chemists have invented an efficient method for making a synthetic version of the plant compound bilobalide, which is naturally produced by gingko trees. It's a significant feat because bilobalide -- and closely related compounds -- hold potential commercial value as medicines and 'green' insecticides.

Breaking water molecules apart to generate clean fuel: Investigating a promising material

Scientists investigated a material that uses sunlight for splitting water molecules (H2O) to obtain dihydrogen (H2). Since dihydrogen can be used as clean fuel, this study provides relevant insight for researchers dealing with clean energy generation.

Drug treats inflammation associated with genetic heart disease

When young athletes experiences sudden cardiac death as they run down the playing field, it's usually due to arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), an inherited heart disease. Now, researchers have shed new light on the role of the immune system in the progression of ACM and, in the process, discovered a new drug that might help prevent ACM disease symptoms and progression to heart failure in some patients.

Old friends and new enemies: How evolutionary history can predict insect invader impacts

Scientists have developed a model that could help foresters predict which nonnative insect invasions will be most problematic. This could help managers decide where to allocate resources to avoid widespread tree death.

Why some US football players have higher cardiovascular risk

Research has shown that while elite athletes overall are at decreased risk of death from cardiovascular problems, a certain group of athletes -- football linemen in the United States -- actually have higher risk than the general population than other elite athletes.

New effective vaccines for Lyme disease are coming

There is no effective vaccine currently available to prevent Lyme disease in humans. Experts from academia, government, and industry recently convened to tackle this public health challenge. Now, a new article reiterates the need to stop the infection, and defines a strategy for developing effective vaccines.

How do ketogenic diets affect skin inflammation?

Not all fats are equal in how they affect our skin, according to a new study. The investigators found that different ketogenic diets impacted skin inflammation differently in psoriasiform-like skin inflammation in mice. Ketogenic diets heavy in medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) such as coconut, especially in combination with omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and plant sources like nuts and seeds, exacerbated psoriasis.

Frequent drinking is greater risk factor for heart rhythm disorder than binge drinking

Drinking small amounts of alcohol frequently is linked with a higher likelihood of atrial fibrillation than binge drinking, according to new research.

Mathematical modeling vital to tackling disease outbreaks

Predicting and controlling disease outbreaks would be easier and more reliable with the wider application of mathematical modelling, according to a new study.

Information theory as a forensics tool for investigating climate mysteries

During Earth's last glacial period, temperatures on the planet periodically spiked dramatically and rapidly. A new article suggests that mathematics from information theory could offer a powerful tool for analyzing and understanding these mysterious events.

Ants inhibit at least 14 different plant diseases

New research shows that ants inhibit at least 14 different plant diseases. The small insects secrete antibiotics from glands in the body. On their legs and body, they also host colonies of bacteria that secrete antibiotics. It is probably these substances that inhibit a number of different diseases and researchers now hope to find biological pesticides that may conquer resistant plant diseases.

Digital breast tomosynthesis increases cancer detection over full-field mammography

A new article compares cancer detection rates (CDR) for screening digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) versus full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Researchers found that DBT results in 'significantly increased CDR' -- irrespective of tumor type, size, or grade of cancer.

New augmented reality system lets smartphone users get hands-on with virtual objects

A new augmented reality system places virtual objects within real-world backgrounds on cell phone screens and lets people interact with those object by hand as if they were really there.

Consumers trust influencers less when there is a variety of choices for a product

Consumers have been relying on opinion leader recommendations to make choices about product quality and purchases for a long time. It is even more prominent now with the prevalence of influencers on social media platforms. The problem is, when there is a wide variety of the same product, consumers question if a positive recommendation is based on quality or personal preferences.

A secret in saliva: Food and germs helped humans evolve into unique member of great apes

Researchers discovered that the human diet -- a result of increased meat consumption, cooking and agriculture -- has led to stark differences in the saliva of humans compared to that of other primates.

Recovering 'lost dimensions' of images and video

Researchers have developed a model that recovers valuable data lost from images and video that have been 'collapsed' into lower dimensions.

Study helps pinpoint what makes species vulnerable to environmental change

Researchers have reported that a bird species' ability to adapt to seasonal temperature changes may be one factor in whether it can better withstand environmental disruption. The researchers studied 135 bird species in the Himalayas and found that species living in the seasonal western Himalayas adapted to the conversion of forests to agricultural land better than birds native to the tropical eastern Himalayas. Results such as these could help conservationists better determine where to focus their efforts.

Scientists find early humans moved through Mediterranean earlier than believed

Scientists have unearthed new evidence in Greece proving that the island of Naxos was inhabited by Neanderthals and earlier humans at least 200,000 years ago, tens of thousands of years earlier than previously believed.

Respiratory diseases linked with high blood pressure in lungs

Pulmonary hypertension is a type of high blood pressure that affects the lungs of both animals and people. When tiny vessels in the lungs become narrowed or blocked, it becomes harder for blood to flow through and can cause the heart to weaken or fail.

Huge dinosaurs evolved different cooling systems to combat heat stroke

Different dinosaur groups independently evolved gigantic body sizes, but they all faced the same problems of overheating and damaging their brains.



 
 

 

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