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Genomic study brings us closer to precision medicine for type 2 diabetes

Most patients with type 2 diabetes are treated with a 'one-size-fits-all' protocol, but this approach can leave many cases inadequately managed. New work indicates that inherited genetic changes may underlie the variability seen among diabetes patients, with different physiological processes potentially leading to high blood sugar. This work represents a first step toward using genetics to identify subtypes of type 2 diabetes.

Spray-on antennas could unlock potential of smart, connected technology

Engineering researchers report a method for spraying invisibly thin antennas, made from a type of two-dimensional, metallic material called MXene, that perform as well as those being used in mobile devices, wireless routers and portable transducers.

Ocean acidification may reduce sea scallop fisheries

Each year, fishermen harvest more than $500 million worth of Atlantic sea scallops from the waters off the east coast of the United States. A new model, however, predicts that those fisheries may potentially be in danger.

Latest research hints at predicting autism risk for pregnant mothers

Researchers are continuing to make remarkable progress with research focused on autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

New findings on chronic pain syndrome in the mouth

The picture is becoming clearer regarding the chronic oral pain condition known as Burning Mouth Syndrome, or BMS, which mainly affects women who are middle-aged and older.

A Trojan Horse delivery for treating a rare, potentially deadly, blood-clotting disorder

In proof-of-concept experiments, researchers have highlighted a potential therapy for a rare but potentially deadly blood-clotting disorder, TTP. The researchers deliver this therapeutic enzyme via the cellular equivalent of a Trojan Horse, using tiny blood cell platelets as their protective delivery vehicle, with a key enzyme hidden inside.

Facial hair on pilots: Study busts myth

Do airline pilots need a clean-shaven face to ensure a proper seal on face masks during emergency cabin depressurization? A recent study offers an answer.

Emissions from most diesel cars in Europe greatly exceed laboratory testing levels

A new study reports that Volkswagen is not the only auto manufacturer to make diesel cars that produce vastly more emissions on the road than in laboratory tests. The study finds that in Europe, 10 major auto manufacturers produced diesel cars, sold between 2000 and 2015, that generate up to 16 times more emissions on the road than in regulatory tests.

Cooking with wood or coal is linked to increased risk of respiratory illness and death

Burning wood or coal to cook food is associated with increased risk of hospitalization or dying from respiratory diseases.

Kiwi teenagers less fit than a generation ago

New Zealand teenagers are less fit and weigh more than their parents were at the same age, new University of Otago research reveals.

Spray coated tactile sensor on 3D surface for robotic skin

Scientists have reported a stretchable pressure insensitive strain sensor by using an all solution-based process. The solution-based process is easily scalable to accommodate for large areas and can be coated as a thin-film on 3-dimensional irregularly shaped objects via spray coating.

Extra Arctic observations can improve predictability of tropical cyclones

Scientists have found that additional weather observations in the Arctic can help predict the track and intensity of tropical and mid-latitude cyclones more accurately, improving weather forecasting of extreme weather events.

Eye infection in contact lens wearers can cause blindness

A new outbreak of a rare but preventable eye infection that can cause blindness, has been identified in contact lens wearers in a new study. The research team found a threefold increase in Acanthamoeba keratitis since 2011 in South-East England.

Pre-clinical success for a universal flu vaccine offers hope for third generation approach

Researchers have demonstrated pre-clinical success for a universal flu vaccine in a new article.

Overwhelming evidence shows hepatitis C treatment effective for people who inject drugs

Researchers are calling on an end to discriminatory health and illicit drugs policies, based on overwhelming evidence that new hepatitis C therapies are effective at curing the virus in people who inject drugs.

Land-based bird populations are at risk of local extinction

A new report finds that land-based bird populations are becoming confined to nature reserves in some parts of the world -- raising the risk of global extinction -- due to the loss of suitable habitat.

Octopuses given mood drug 'ecstasy' reveal genetic link to evolution of social behaviors in humans

By studying the genome of a kind of octopus not known for its friendliness toward its peers, then testing its behavioral reaction to a popular mood-altering drug called MDMA or 'ecstasy,' scientists say they have found preliminary evidence of an evolutionary link between the social behaviors of the sea creature and humans, species separated by 500 million years on the evolutionary tree.

Neutrons produce first direct 3-D maps of water during cell membrane fusion

New 3-D maps of water distribution during cellular membrane fusion are accelerating scientific understanding of cell development, which could lead to new treatments for diseases associated with cell fusion.

To improve auto coatings, new tests do more than scratch the surface

Data from new suite of tests could eventually help your vehicle's exterior better defend itself against dings, dents, scratches and things that go bump on the highway.

Synthetic organelle shows how tiny puddle-organs in our cells work

Imagine your liver being just a big puddle. Some organelles in your cells are exactly that including prominent ones like the nucleolus. Now a synthetic organelle engineered in a lab shows how such puddle organs can carry out complex life-sustaining reaction chains.

TINY cancer detection device proves effective in Uganda testing

About half the size of a lunch box, the Tiny Isothermal Nucleic acid quantification sYstem (or TINY) has shown promise as a point-of-care detector of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

Commitment to democratic values predict climate change concern, study finds

In a new study comparing climate change attitudes across 36 countries, including the United States, commitment to democratic values is the strongest predictor of climate change concern globally.

Smart pills dumb down medical care, experts warn

Enthusiasm for an emerging digital health tool, the smart pill, is on the rise but researchers caution health care providers and policymakers to slow down when it comes to allowing this technology in patient care settings.

Preventing a dengue outbreak at the 2020 Summer Olympics

New controls and frameworks are recommended to detect dengue and other infectious diseases and help prevent their spread during the 2020 summer Olympics and Paralympics being held in Tokyo, researchers report.

Human skeletal stem cells identified

Human skeletal stem cells that become bone, cartilage, or stroma cells have been isolated from fetal and adult bones. This is the first time that skeletal stem cells, which had been observed in rodent models, have been identified in humans. The researchers were also able to derive the skeletal stem cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells, opening up new therapeutic possibilities.

Kiwifruit duplicated its vitamin C genes twice, 50 million and 20 million years ago

Today's kiwifruit contains about as much vitamin C as an orange -- the result of the kiwifruit's ancestors' spontaneously duplicating their DNA in two separate evolutionary events approximately 50-57 million and 18-20 million years ago.

Gut fungus exacerbates asthma in antibiotic-treated mice

A non-pathogenic fungus can expand in the intestines of antibiotic-treated mice and enhance the severity of allergic airways disease, according to a new study. The findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota induced by intestinal fungi might be a previously unrecognized but potentially important risk of antibiotic therapy in patients with asthma and other respiratory diseases.

We are bombarded by thousands of diverse species and chemicals

Scientists have measured the human 'exposome,' or the particulates, chemicals and microbes that individually swaddle us all, in unprecedented detail.

Gambling monkeys help scientists find brain area linked to high-risk behavior

Monkeys who learned how to gamble have helped researchers pinpoint an area of the brain key to one's willingness to make risky decisions.

Scientists grow human esophagus in lab

Scientists working to bioengineer the entire human gastrointestinal system in a laboratory now report using pluripotent stem cells to grow human esophageal organoids. This is the first time scientists have been able to grow human esophageal tissue entirely from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which can form any tissue type in the body.

Drug overdose epidemic has been growing exponentially for decades

Death rates from drug overdoses in the US have been on an exponential growth curve that began at least 15 years before the mid-1990s surge in opioid prescribing, suggesting that overdose death rates may continue along this same historical growth trajectory for years to come. These findings suggest that, to be successful, prevention efforts must extend beyond control of specific drugs to address deeper factors driving the epidemic.

Novel biomarker found in ovarian cancer patients can predict response to therapy

Researchers have identified an independent prognostic factor, cancer/testis antigen 45, that is associated with extended disease-free survival for women with advanced ovarian cancer. Patients with high levels of CT45 in their tumors lived more than seven times as long as patients who lacked sufficient CT45.

Gut sense: Neural superhighway conveys messages from gut to brain in milliseconds

Searching for a more direct connection between the gut and the brain, researchers were shocked to see that distance spanned by a single synapse, relaying the signal in less than 100 milliseconds, less than the blink of an eye. The finding has profound implications for the understanding of appetite and appetite suppressants, most of which target slow-acting hormones rather than fast-acting synapses.

Plug-and-play technology automates chemical synthesis

Researchers have developed an automated chemical synthesis machine that can take over many tedious aspects of chemical experimentation, freeing chemists to spend time on the more analytical and creative aspects of their work.

Fat from 558 million years ago reveals earliest known animal

Scientists have discovered molecules of fat in an ancient fossil to reveal the earliest confirmed animal in the geological record that lived on Earth 558 million years ago.

What makes a mammal a mammal? Our spine, say scientists

Mammals are unique in many ways. We're warm-blooded and agile in comparison with our reptilian relatives.

A behavioral intervention for cancer patients that works

This is a story about something rare in health psychology: a treatment that has gone from scientific discovery, through development and testing, to dissemination and successful implementation nationwide. In a new study, researchers found that a program designed at The Ohio State University to reduce harmful stress in cancer patients can be taught to therapists from around the country and implemented at their sites, and effectively improves mood in their patients.

A one-way street for salt

Barely heard of a couple of years ago, quinoa today is common on European supermarket shelves. The hardy plant thrives even in saline soils. Researchers have now determined how the plant gets rid of the excess salt.

Major breakthrough in controlling the 3D structure of molecules

Scientists have made a major breakthrough in chemical synthesis that now makes it possible to quickly and reliably modify the 3D structure of molecules used in drug discovery. The new method allows scientists to employ cross-coupling reactions to generate new compounds while controlling their 3D architecture.

Astrophysicists measure precise rotation pattern of sun-like stars for the first time

Scientists have measured the differential rotation on Sun-like stars for the first time, and their findings challenge current science on how stars rotate.

Manganese plays a key role in bacterial infection

The ability to acquire manganese during infection is essential for the virulence of Enterococcus faecalis in animals, according to a new study.

A naturally occurring antibiotic active against drug-resistant tuberculosis

Researchers have discovered that a naturally occurring antibiotic called kanglemycin A is effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, even in drug-resistant strains.

NASA balloon mission captures electric blue clouds

Scientists share mesmerizing new images of electric blue clouds from NASA's PMC Turbo balloon mission that flew in over the Arctic in July 2018.

Investigational steroid mirrors prednisone's benefits while taming its side effects

A head-to-head trial comparing the decades-old steroid, prednisone, and a promising new steroid, vamorolone, finds both act on the same key set of genetic pathways involved in controlling inflammation, indicates a new study. However, the study suggests the new investigational steroid doesn't activate several additional pathways involved in prednisone's bevy of undesirable side effects.

Full, but still feasting: Mouse study reveals how urge to eat overpowers a signal to stop

A new study explores the mystery of what drives eating past the point of fullness, at the most basic level in the brain. It shows that two tiny clusters of cells battle for control of feeding behavior -- and the one that drives eating overpowers the one that says to stop. It also shows that the brain's own natural opioid system gets involved -- and that blocking it with the drug naloxone can stop over-eating.

Genomic dark matter activity connects Parkinson's and psychiatric diseases

Using a new technique known as laser-capture RNA seq, that involves cutting out dopamine neurons from a human brain section with a laser, investigators have cataloged more than 70,000 novel elements active in these brain cells.

Study documents poor mental and physical health in rural borderland community members

A new study offers vivid picture of health consequences of life events and chronic strain among foreign-born Mexicans in farm working communities.

Reducing false positives in credit card fraud detection

Consumers' credit cards are declined surprisingly often in legitimate transactions. One cause is that fraud-detecting technologies used by a consumer's bank have incorrectly flagged the sale as suspicious. Now researchers have employed a new machine-learning technique to drastically reduce these false positives, saving banks money and easing customer frustration.

Why do people share? It's contagious, six-year study of Hadza people shows

In the modern world, people cooperate with other people including strangers all the time. We give blood, tip providers of various services, and donate to charity even though there is seemingly nothing in it for us. Now, researchers who've studied Hadza hunter-gatherer people in Tanzania over a six-year period have new and surprising insight into why people work together.

How lactoferrin clamps down on free roaming iron ions to stop nefarious effects on cells

What prevents our cells being damaged due to overexposure to iron ions is a protein called lactoferrin, known for its ability to bind tightly to such ions. Researchers used a combined experimental and molecular dynamics simulation to study the changes in the structure of lactoferrin as it binds to iron ions.

Even the best healthcare facilities can do more to prevent infections

Healthcare-associated infections can be reduced by up to 55 percent by systematically implementing evidence-based infection prevention and control strategies, according to a review of 144 studies. The study suggests that there is considerable room for improvement in infection prevention and control practices, regardless of the economic status of the country.

Hookworms employ live fast/die young strategy in fur seal pup hosts

Hookworms exploit a live fast/die young strategy in their South American fur seal pup hosts. As a result, they often kill their host, rather than finding a happy equilibrium. Scientists are concerned that this type of hookworm infection could eventually pose a risk to critically endangered populations of fur seals.

Matter falling into a black hole at 30 percent of the speed of light

Astronomers report the first detection of matter falling into a black hole at 30% of the speed of light, located in the center of the billion-light year distant galaxy PG211+143. The team used data from the European Space Agency's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton to observe the black hole.

In depression the brain region for stress control is larger

Although depression is one of the leading psychiatric disorders, its cause remains unclear. A recent study found that those affected by depressive disorder have a larger hypothalamus compared to their healthy counterparts. This could explain why many sufferers show increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol and are very often afflicted with periods of tension.

Intestines modify their cellular structure in response to diet

Body organs such as the intestine and ovaries undergo structural changes in response to dietary nutrients that can have lasting impacts on metabolism, as well as cancer susceptibility.

Nerve cells in the human brain can 'count'

How do we know if we're looking at three apples or four? Researchers were able to demonstrate that some brain cells fire mainly for quantities of three, others for quantities of four and others for other quantities. A similar effect can be observed for digits: In humans, the neurons activated in response to a '2' are for instance not the same as the neurons activated for a '5'.

Researchers patent technology for smart seat cushion, adaptable prosthetics

Researchers have patented a smart seat cushion that uses changes in air pressure to redistribute body weight and help prevent the painful ulcers caused by sitting for long periods of time in a wheelchair. The same technology can be used to create prosthetic liners that adapt their shape to accommodate changes in body volume.

Mathematics meets biology to uncover unexpected biorhythms

A novel mathematical approach has uncovered that some animal cells have robust 12-hour cycles of genetic activity, in addition to circadian or 24-hour cycles.

Sample size matters in multisensory integration studies

Sample size (the number of individuals examined for a study) is the most important factor determining the accuracy of the study results.

Fish-rich diets in pregnancy may boost babies' brain development

Women could enhance the development of their unborn child's eyesight and brain function by regularly eating fatty fish during pregnancy. This is the suggestion from a small-scale study. The research supports previous findings that show how important a prospective mother's diet and lifestyle choices are for the development of her baby.



 
 

 

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