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Forty percent of people have a fictional first memory

Researchers have conducted one of the largest surveys of people's first memories, finding that nearly 40 per cent of people had a first memory which is fictional.

Algorithm identifies patients best suited for antidepressants

Results of a new study bring us closer to identifying individuals likely to benefit from antidepressants.

New target protein for colon cancer identified

Researchers have identified a new potential target protein (c-Cbl) they believe can help further the understanding of colon cancer and ultimately survival of patients with the disease.

No more zigzags: Scientists uncover mechanism that stabilizes fusion plasmas

Article describes simulation of mechanism that eliminates sawtooth instabilities in fusion plasmas.

Early supper associated with lower risk of breast and prostate cancer

People who have their evening meal before 9 p.m. or wait at least two hours before going to sleep have lower risk of breast and prostate cancer.

Almost half of US adults who drink, drink too much, and continue to do so

A new study has found that about 40 percent of adults in the United States who drink alcohol do so in amounts that risk health consequences, and identifies a range of factors associated with starting or stopping drinking too much.

Broadly acting antibodies found in plasma of Ebola survivors

Recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks highlight the need for licensed treatments. ZMapp, an experimental therapy, has shown promise in a clinical trial, but targets only one of five known species of Ebola virus. Now scientists have discovered powerful, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in the blood of EVD survivors. In animal studies, two of these antibodies provided substantial protection against disease caused by the three species known to cause fatal human illness.

5,000 percent increase in native trees on rat-free palmyra atoll

New research demonstrates dramatic positive benefits for native trees following rat removal at Palmyra Atoll, a magnificent National Wildlife Refuge and natural research laboratory located about 1000 miles south of Hawaii. For five native tree species, including Pisonia grandis, fewer than 150 seedlings were counted in the presence of rats, and more than 7700 seedlings were counted five years after rats were removed.

Sap-sucking bugs manipulate their host plants' metabolism for their own benefit

Researchers have shown for the first time that free-living, sap-sucking bugs can manipulate the metabolism of their host plants to create stable, nutritious feeding sites.

The rise of secondary imaging interpretations

Among Medicare beneficiaries, the frequency of billed secondary interpretation services for diagnostic imaging services increased from 2003 to 2016 across a broad range of modalities and body regions, often dramatically.

For professional baseball players, faster hand-eye coordination linked to batting performance

Professional baseball players who score higher on a test of hand-eye coordination have better batting performance -- particularly in drawing walks and other measures of 'plate discipline,' reports a study.

A single genetic change in gut bacteria alters host metabolism

Scientists have found that deleting a single gene in a particular strain of gut bacteria causes changes in metabolism and reduced weight gain in mice.

As we get parched, cognition can easily sputter, dehydration study says

Getting parched can fuzz attentiveness and make it harder to solve problems. Dehydration can easily put a dent in those and other cognitive functions, a new metadata analysis of multiple studies shows. Researchers are particularly interested in accident potential this may pose for people who toil in the heat around heavy equipment or military hardware.

The scent of coffee appears to boost performance in math

Research reveals that the scent of coffee alone may help people perform better on the analytical portion of the Graduate Management Aptitude Test, or GMAT, a computer adaptive test required by many business schools.

Solutions to water challenges reside at the interface

Researchers describe the most advanced research innovations that could address global clean water accessibility. A new comprehensive article focuses on understanding and controlling the interfaces between materials and water.

What is the meaning of life? Ask a conservative

A deep analysis of a series of surveys across 16 countries that spanned several years shows that people who are on the conservative end of the political spectrum believe their lives are meaningful while those on the liberal end continue to search for meaning.

Childhood abuse linked to greater risk of endometriosis

A study of more than 60,000 women has found that sexual and physical abuse in childhood and adolescence is associated with a greater risk of laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis diagnosed during adulthood. The study -- the largest of its kind -- found that women reporting severe-chronic abuse of multiple types had a 79 percent higher risk of laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis.

Close-ups of grain boundaries reveal how sulfur impurities make nickel brittle

Engineers have shed new light on a scientific mystery regarding the atomic-level mechanism of the sulfur embrittlement of nickel, a classic problem that has puzzled the scientific community for nearly a century. The discovery also enriches fundamental understanding of general grain boundaries that often control the mechanical and physical properties of polycrystalline materials.

Nitric oxide tells roundworms to avoid bad bacteria

Nitric oxide gas produced by a type of harmful bacteria lets roundworms know to stay away from it, says a new study.

Exploding waves from colliding dissipative pulses

The interaction of traveling waves in dissipative systems, physical systems driven by energy dissipation, can yield unexpected and sometimes chaotic results. These waves, known as dissipative pulses are driving experimental studies in a variety of areas that involve matter and energy flows.

New cost-effective instrument measures molecular dynamics on a picosecond timescale

Studying the photochemistry has shown that ultraviolet radiation can set off harmful chemical reactions in the human body and, alternatively, can provide 'photo-protection' by dispersing extra energy. To better understand the dynamics of these photochemical processes, a group of scientists irradiated the RNA base uracil with ultraviolet light and documented its behavior on a picosecond timescale.

Digital media use linked to behavioral problems in kids

Teens who spend lots of time using digital devices are prone to psychiatric problems, reports a team of scientists in a new study. Children who are heavy users of digital devices are twice as likely as infrequent users to show symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the study finds.

High vinculin levels help keep aging fruit fly hearts young

A new discovery in how heart muscles maintain their shape in fruit flies sheds light on the crucial relationship between cardiac function, metabolism, and longevity. Researchers have discovered that maintaining high levels of the protein vinculin confers health benefits to fruit flies. Their work shows that fruit flies bred to produce 50 percent more vinculin enjoyed better cardiovascular health and lived a third of their average life span longer.

Social isolation: Animals that break away from the pack can influence evolution

For some animals -- such as beetles, ants, toads, and primates -- short-term social isolation can be just as vital as social interaction to development and long-term evolution. Evolutionary biologists describe approaches for testing how an animal's isolation might impact natural selection and evolution. This framework can help design more effective breeding, reintroduction, and conservation strategies.

Transmission of specific colors of light over long distances

Researchers have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. They explored a new way to select and send light of a specific color using long silicon wires that are several hundred nanometers in diameter and their work enabled a new type of nanoscale ''light switch'' that can turn on and off the transmission of one color of light over very long distances.

While men lose more weight on low-carb diets, women show improved artery flexibility

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 1 out of 3 American adults live with higher than normal blood sugar levels known as prediabetes. Researchers recently found that while men may lose more weight on low-carb diets, women actually see better improvements in artery flexibility. It's a finding that may help pre-diabetic women reduce their risk for heart disease through a low-carb diet.

Newly discovered shark species honors female pioneer

The 'Shark Lady,' has received the ultimate ichthyologist honor: having a new species of shark, Squalus clarkae, named after her.

Why men might recover from flu faster than women

Men may recover more quickly from influenza infections because they produce more of a key lung-healing protein, a study suggests.

Incarceration of parents impacts health of their children into adulthood

A new study found that young adults who had a parent incarcerated during their childhood are more likely to skip needed healthcare, smoke cigarettes, engage in risky sexual behaviors, and abuse alcohol, prescription and illicit drugs. These findings have a potentially broad impact, as more than five million US children have had a parent in jail or prison.

A dozen new moons of Jupiter discovered, including one 'oddball'

Twelve new moons orbiting Jupiter have been found -- 11 'normal' outer moons, and one that they're calling an 'oddball.' Astronomers first spotted the moons in the spring of 2017 while they were looking for very distant solar system objects as part of the hunt for a possible massive planet far beyond Pluto.

Brain iron levels may predict multiple sclerosis disabilities

A new, highly accurate MRI technique can monitor iron levels in the brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and help identify those at a higher risk for developing physical disability, according to a new study.

Childhood adversity increases susceptibility to addiction via immune response

Childhood adversity permanently alters the peripheral and central immune systems, increasing the sensitivity of the body's immune response to cocaine, reports a new study.

Protein found to be key component in irregularly excited brain cells

In a new study in mice, researchers have identified a key protein involved in the irregular brain cell activity seen in autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy. The protein, p53, is well-known in cancer biology as a tumor suppressor.

Allergic responses may protect against skin cancer

The components of the immune system that trigger allergic reactions may also help protect the skin against cancer, suggest new findings.

Technique may improve lung delivery of bacteria-killing phage

A new delivery system for bacteriophages -- viruses that selectively attack harmful bacteria -- could help give doctors a new way to battle lung infections that threaten older patients and people with cystic fibrosis.

Tackling cancer at ground zero with designer molecules

A new molecule shows great promise for future treatment of many cancers.

Astronomers find a famous exoplanet's doppelganger

A new planet has been imaged, and it appears nearly identical to one of the best studied gas-giant planets. But this doppelganger differs in one very important way: Its origin. One object has long been known: the 13-Jupiter-mass planet beta Pictoris b, one of the first planets discovered by direct imaging, back in 2009. The new object, dubbed 2MASS 0249 c, has the same mass, brightness, and spectrum as beta Pictoris b.

The freediving champions of the dolphin world

New research explains how some populations of bottlenose dolphins can dive to almost 1,000 meters while avoiding decompression sickness. The new hypothesis suggests that lung architecture and the management of blood flow allow bottlenose dolphins to access oxygen in the lungs while preventing uptake of nitrogen which would cause the bends. The findings act as a starting point to understand how environmental changes and anthropogenic interaction may impact the future of the species.

Using driving simulation to understand driver complacency at passive rail level crossings

The study replicates and extends prior research on the effectiveness of using driving simulators to detect and mitigate risky behaviors.

Homogeneous BTK occupancy assay

A time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based BTK occupancy assay measures target engagement in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in lymph-node and bone-marrow samples.

The ancient armor of fish -- scales -- provide clues to hair, feather development

How do scale patterns on fish provide understanding of the development of feathers, fur -- and even cancer? Biologists are investigating.

Decade of research shows little improvement in websites' password guidance

Leading brands including Amazon and Wikipedia are failing to support users with advice on how to securely protect their data, a study shows.

What psychological science can offer to reducing climate change

The consequences of climate change are immense, and believed by many experts to be largely irreversible (and exponential), causing threats coming from heat waves, flooding, declines in agriculture, and decreasing biodiversity, to name a few. Given that climate change, at least in part, is rooted in human behavior, an obvious question to ask is: Can psychological science offer evidence-based solutions to climate change?

How cannabis affects appetite: Brain changes

New research on how cannabis use alters eating behavior could lead to treatments for appetite loss in chronic illness, according to experts. Using a new procedure to dose lab rats with cannabis vapor, the researchers found how the drug triggers hunger hormones. They also identified specific brain regions that shift to 'hungry' mode while under the influence.

Diabetes drug with better side-effect tolerance could improve treatment

Improved medications for Type 2 diabetes are one step closer thanks to a new discovery. By modifying the key ingredient in current diabetes drugs, the researchers produced a compound that was effective for hyperglycemia in animal trials, yet without the most problematic side effects of current drugs.

Hunger hormones offer promising avenue for addiction treatment

Hormones that signal the body's state of hunger and fullness could be the key to new treatments for drug and alcohol addiction. Gut hormones have received considerable attention from scientists seeking to understand overeating and obesity, which led the panelists to discover that those hormones are also involved in addiction.

Anti-obesity drug derived from chili peppers shows promise in animal trials

A novel drug based on capsaicin, the compound that gives chili peppers their spicy burn, caused long term weight loss and improved metabolic health in mice eating a high fat diet. The drug, Metabocin, was designed to slowly release capsaicin throughout the day so it can exert its anti-obesity effect without producing inflammation or adverse side effects.

Researchers identify brain area linked to motivational disruptions in binge eating

Scientists have discovered that a small group of brain cells in the hypothalamus called 'orexin' neurons could be a promising target for medications for controlling binge eating episodes in individuals with obesity. These neurons, named for the chemical messenger they use to communicate with other brain cells, have previously been shown to be important for addiction to several drugs, including cocaine.

Mindset during meal planning changes food choices and brain responses to food

A simple instruction to change your thinking as mealtime approaches can help cut calories, according to new research. By encouraging study participants to concentrate on different types of information when planning their meal, the experimenters saw portion sizes shift. Adopting a health-focused mindset produced better outcomes than focusing on pleasure or the desire to fill up.

Majority of older adults with probable dementia are likely unaware they have it, study suggests

An analysis of information gathered for an ongoing and federally sponsored study of aging and disability adds to evidence that a substantial majority of older adults with probable dementia in the United States have never been professionally diagnosed or are unaware they have been.

Variations of a single gene drive diverse pigeon feather patterns

Biologists have discovered that different versions of a single gene, called NDP (Norrie Disease Protein), have unexpected links between color patterns in pigeons, and vision defects in humans. These gene variations were likely bred into pigeons by humans from a different pigeon species and are now evolutionarily advantageous in wild populations of feral pigeons living in urban environments.

Who made the error? The brain distinguishes causes of errors to perform adaptation

Scientists examined positions to detect motor and target errors and whether error signals from these positions were used for learning, finding that the parietal lobe detected causes of motor errors in arm reaching and provided signals to compensate for errors. They also revealed that Brodmann area 5 detected the self-generated motor error and that Brodmann area 7 detected target error caused by target movements, both providing error signals for adaptation.

How does the sun's rotational cycle influence lightning activity on earth?

A collaborative research team has taken the first steps to understanding how the sun's rotational cycle influences lightning activity. They found answers in an unusual source -- diaries dating back to the 1700s.

Impact of temperature on mitochondrial DNA evolution

A new study provides evidence towards selection in mtDNA due to variations in temperature.

The depths of the ocean and gut flora unravel the mystery of microbial genes

Surprisingly, the functions of a huge number of microbial genes are still unknown. This knowledge gap can be thought of as ''genomic dark matter'' in microbes, and neither computational biology nor current lab techniques have been able address this gap. This challenge has now been tackled through an international collaboration between the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and two other interdisciplinary research centres, namely the IJS in Ljubljana (Slovenia) and RBI in Zagreb (Croatia).

World's largest study on allergic rhinitis reveals new risk genes

Scientists have presented the largest study so far on allergic rhinitis. The data of nearly 900,000 participants revealed loci in the human genome whose changes significantly increase the risk of disease.

'Invisible' stool blood linked to heightened risk of death from all causes

'Invisible' blood detected in the stools is linked to a heightened risk of death from all causes, as well as from bowel cancer, reveals research published online in the journal Gut.

Effective diagnosis of persistent facial pain will benefit patients and save money

Patients with persistent facial pain are costing the economy more than £3,000 each per year, new research has revealed.

Key social reward circuit in the brain impaired in kids with autism

Children with autism have structural and functional abnormalities in the brain circuit that normally makes social interaction feel rewarding, according to a new study from the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Heritable genome editing: Action needed to secure responsible way forward

An independent inquiry has concluded that editing the DNA of a human embryo, sperm, or egg to influence the characteristics of a future person ('heritable genome editing') could be morally permissible. If that is to happen, a number of measures would need to be put in place first to ensure that genome editing proceeds in ways that are ethically acceptable.



 
 

 

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